Work Cited

“About Us.” n.d. Boys & Girls Club of Hartford. Accessed November 13, 2022.

Ahn, June. 2012. “Teenagers’ Experiences With Social Network Sites: Relationships to Bridging and Bonding Social Capital.” The Information Society 28 (2): 99–109.

“Afterschool Programs | Youth.Gov.” n.d. Accessed October 30, 2022.

Anderson-Butcher, D., Newsome, W. S., & Ferrari, T. M. (2003). Participation in boys and girls clubs and relationships to youth outcomes. Journal of Community Psychology, 31(1), 39–55.

 Behnke, Andrew O., and Christine Kelly. “Creating programs to help Latino youth thrive at school: The influence of Latino parent involvement programs.” Journal of Extension 49, no. 1 (2011): 1-11. 

“Connecticut HB05001 | 2022 | General Assembly.” n.d. LegiScan. Accessed October 30, 2022.

Daniels, Cheyanne M. 2021. “Oversimplifying Black History: What Schools Do Wrong.” Medill News Service (blog). February 22, 2021.

Fraser-Thomas, Jessica L., Jean Côté, and Janice Deakin. “Youth sport programs: An avenue to foster positive youth development.” Physical education & sport pedagogy 10, no. 1 (2005): 19-40.

Fredricks, Jennifer, and Eccles, Jacquelynne. n.d. “Participation in Extracurricular Activities in the Middle School Years: Are There Developmental Benefits for African American and European American Youth? | SpringerLink.” Accessed October 30, 2022.

Freire, Paulo. 2017. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Penguin Modern Classics. London, England: Penguin Classics.

Gay, Geneva. 2002. “Preparing for Culturally Responsive Teaching.” Journal of Teacher Education 53 (2): 106–16.

Gebretensae, Hanna, and John Hornstein. “Eliot-Pearson Children’s School.” YC Young Children 74, no. 5 (2019): 28-36.

Ginwright, Shawn, and Julio Cammarota. “New Terrain in Youth Development: The Promise of a Social Justice Approach.” Social Justice 29, no. 4 (90) (2002): 82–95.

Griffin, Pat, and Mathew L. Ouellett. “Going beyond gay-straight alliances to make schools safe for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender students.” The policy journal of the Institute for gay and lesbian strategic studies 6, no. 1, 2002

“Historical Timeline.” n.d. Boys & Girls Club of Hartford (blog). Accessed November 13, 2022.

Howard, Tyrone, and Clarence L. Terry Sr. “Culturally responsive pedagogy for African American students: Promising programs and practices for enhanced academic performance.” Teaching Education 22, no. 4 (2011): 345-362

Hurd, Noelle, and Nancy Deutsch. “SEL-focused afterschool programs.” The Future of Children (2017): 95-115.

Jennings, Louise B., Deborah M. Parra-Medina, Deanne K. Hilfinger-Messias, and Kerry McLoughlin. 2006. “Toward a Critical Social Theory of Youth Empowerment.” Journal of Community Practice 14 (1–2): 31–55.

Jackson, Stephen. The Patchwork of World History in Texas High Schools: Unpacking Eurocentrism, Imperialism, and Nationalism in the Curriculum, 1920-2021. Taylor & Francis, 2022.

Khalifa, Muhammad. “Creating spaces for urban youth: The emergence of culturally responsive (hip-hop) school leadership and pedagogy.” Multicultural Learning and Teaching 8, no. 2 (2013): 63-93.

 Khanlou, N., & Wray, R. (2014). A Whole Community Approach toward Child and Youth Resilience Promotion: A Review of Resilience Literature. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 12(1), 64–79.

Sook Lee, Jung, and Natasha Bowen. n.d. “Parent Involvement, Cultural Capital, and the Achievement Gap Among Elementary School Children – Jung-Sook Lee, Natasha K. Bowen, 2006.” Accessed December 9, 2022.
Liu, Y., Simpkins, S. D., & Lin, A. R. (2018). Ethnic Cultural Features in Organized Activities: Relations to Latino Adolescents’ Activity Experiences and Parental Involvement. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 47(10), 2243–2260.

Luthar, Suniya S., Dante Cicchetti, and Bronwyn Becker. “The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work.” Child development 71, no. 3 (2000): 543-562

Loveless, Tom. 2017. “2017 Brown Center Report on American Education: Race and School Suspensions.” Brookings (blog). March 22, 2017.

O’Donoghue, Jennifer L., and Karen R. Strobel. 2007. “Directivity and Freedom: Adult Support of Activism Among Urban Youth.” American Behavioral Scientist 51 (3): 465–85.

“Our Locations.” 2019. Boys & Girls Club of Hartford (blog). January 9, 2019.

Person. (2015, August 18). 10 tips: Building relationships with youth. 10 Tips: Building Relationships with Youth. Retrieved December 11, 2022, from

“Programs.” n.d. Boys & Girls Club of Hartford (blog). Accessed November 13, 2022.

Rhodes, A. M., & Schechter, R. (2014). Fostering Resilience Among Youth in Inner City Community Arts Centers: The Case of the Artists Collective. Education and Urban Society, 46(7), 826–848.

Riggs, Nathaniel R., Amy M. Bohnert, Maria D. Guzman, and Denise Davidson. “Examining the potential of community-based afterschool programs for Latino youth.” American Journal of Community Psychology 45, no. 3 (2010): 417-429

Simpkins, Sandra D., and Nathaniel R. Riggs. 2014. “Cultural Competence in Afterschool Programs.” New Directions for Youth Development 2014 (144): 105–17.

Simpkins, Sandra D., Nathaniel R. Riggs, Bic Ngo, Andrea Vest Ettekal, and Dina Okamoto. “Designing culturally responsive organized afterschool activities.” Journal of Adolescent Research 32, no. 1 (2017): 11-36.

Simpkins, Sandra and Fredricks, Jennifer A. 2012. “Promoting Positive Youth Development through Organized After‐school Activities: Taking a Closer Look at Participation of Ethnic Minority Youth.” Child Development Perspectives 6: 280–87.

Serido, Joyce, Lynne M. Borden, and Daniel F. Perkins. 2011. “Moving Beyond Youth Voice.” Youth & Society 43 (1): 44–63.

Stiler, G., & Allen, L. (2006). Making connections with the past: (un)masking African American history at a neighborhood community center. Multicultural Education, 13(4), 24. 

Study: Half of Black Males, 40 Percent of White Males Arrested by Age 23 – University at Albany-SUNY.” n.d. Accessed October 31, 2022.

“Supporting Student Success Through Afterschool Programs.” n.d. Accessed October 30, 2022.

“This Is Afterschool in Connecticut.” 2020. This Is Afterschool.

“U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Hartford City, Connecticut.” n.d. Accessed November 13, 2022.

 Ventura, Julissa. 2017. “‘We Created That Space with Everybody:’ Constructing a Community-Based Space of Belonging and Familia in a Latina/o Youth Group.” Association of Mexican American Educators Journal 11 (1): 23.

White, W. (2019). Integrate content and practice to create a welcoming classroom environment. New York State Education Department. Retrieved October 16, 2022, from

Wilkerson, E., McAlister, S., Foster, L., and Perez, W.Y. (2022) Five Recommendations for Creating Culturally Responsive & Sustaining Out-of-School Programs. PRE Research Brief. New York: Metropolitan Center for Research on Equity and the Transformation of Schools at New York University.

Deprecated: Directive 'allow_url_include' is deprecated in Unknown on line 0