Online Sources

Djubal, Clay. “Practitioners [E].” Australian Variety Theatre Archive, 1 Aug. 2019,

Editors, “Underground Railroad.”, A&E Television Networks, 29 Oct. 2009,

Herrin, Dean. “From Slave to Abolitionist: James W. C. Pennington of Washington County, Maryland .” From Slave to Abolitionist: James W. C. Pennington of Washington County, Maryland , 30 Sept. 2001,

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. “Underground Railroad.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 4 June 2017,

Yee, Shirley. “Hosea Easton (1798-1837).” Welcome to Blackpast •, 2 Aug. 2019,


Beeching, Barbara. Hopes and Expectations: the Origins of the Black Middle Class in Hartford, Connecticut. State University of New York Press, 2017.

Easton, Hosea. To Heal the Scourge of Prejudice: the Life and Writings of Hosea Easton. Edited by George R. Price and James Brewer. Stewart, University of Massachusetts Press, 1999.

Hooker, John. Some Reminiscences of a Long Life; with a Few Articles on Moral and Social Subjects of Present Interest. Belknap & Warfield, 1899.

Mars, James. Life of James Mars, a Slave Born and Sold in Connecticut. Litchfield Literary Books, 2014. (Originally published in 1864)

Pennington, James W. C. A Text Book of the Origin and History, &c. &c. of the Colored People. L. Skinner, Printer, 2004. (Originally published in 1841)

Plato, Ann, and Kenny J Williams. Essays Including Biographies and Miscellaneous Pieces, in Prose and Poetry. Oxford Univ. Press, 1988. (Originally published in 1841)

Webber, Christopher L. American to the Backbone: the Life of James W.C. Pennington, the Fugitive Slave Who Became One of the First Black Abolitionists. Pegasus Books, 2011.

Welburn, Ron. Hartford’s Ann Plato and the Native Borders of Identity. SUNY Press, 2016.


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